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Foreword

The Kaurna
   Skillogolee Creek
   Before Settlement
   Tribal Organisation
   Population
   Nantowarra
   Sexual Relations
   European Views
   Footnotes

Kudnarto
   Warrawarra
   Birth Date
   Names
   Footnotes

Early Years
   Daily Life
   Child Rearing
   Food
   Food Gathering
   Shelter
   Gatherings
   Education
   Cooking
   Fire
   Tanning
   Games
   Schools
   Footnotes

Marriage
   Puberty
   Ceremony
   Sexual Relations
   Footnotes

Settlement
   John Hill
   Horrocks
   Rape
   Surveying
   Stanley County
   Skillogolee Creek
   Auburn
   Watervale
   Penwortham
   Emu Plains
   Clare
   Bundaleer
   Footnotes

Land Grants
   The Protector
   The Reality
   Early Days
   Land Selection
   Land Holdings
   Land Usage
   Racial Theories
   Footnotes

Shepherds
   Tensions
   Killing
   Double Standards
   More Killing
   Harem Life
   Prostitution
   Ferguson's Place
   Deserting Husbands
   Rape
   Sex and Sheep
   Footnotes

Adams
   Problems
   Adams' Birth
   Humberstone
   The Adams Family
   Ann Mason
   Edward Adams
   Conditions
   Labourer's Life
   Footnotes

Literacy
   Was he literate?
   Writing Skills
   Graphology
   Hale
   Evidence
   School
   Other People
   Adams' Letters
   Footnotes

Childhood
   A Carpenter?
   Birth Information
   Van Dieman's Land
   South Australia
   Port Adelaide
   Emigration Agents
   Sheep
   Labourer's Lot
   Crystal Brook
   Footnotes

Engagement
   Notice
   Reasons
   Feelings
   Minor
   Engagement
   Drinking Problems
   Footnotes

Wedding
   Registry Office
   Established View
   Kudnarto's Dress
   High Fashion
   Wedding Ceremony
   Footnotes

Land
   Land Please
   Lodgement
   I have a dream
   Opposition
   Processing
   Approval
   The Licence
   Notification
   Scams
   Footnotes

Farming
   The House
   Who Gains
   Farming Capital
   Reality sets in
   Tom
   Murray
   Inheritance
   Footnotes

Copper
   Port Henry
   Bullock Drays
   Watering Holes
   Gold
   Skilly Creek
   Footnotes

Murder

The Trial

Skilly Creek
   Money Problems
   Leasing
   Tim
   Eviction
   Problems
   Separation
   Sharefarming
   Footnotes

Death
   Single Life
   Kudnarto's Death
   Loss of Land
   Poonindie
   Footnotes

Land Claim
   Unresolved Issues
   Terra Nullius
   Land Conflict
   Subtext
   Licence
   Promises
   The Facts
   Footnotes

Epilogue
   Significance
   At One

Biographies
   People
   Hotels

Letters
   Adams' Letters
   Replies

Handwriting
   Dissection
   Tabulation
   Analysis

Police Court

Trial Report

The Civilising
   1840
   White Women
   Contact
   Missionary activity
   Footnotes
   Bibliography

1860 Report
   1860
   Report Origins
   Attitudes
   Infanticide
   Sterility
   Promiscuity
   Health
   Gender Imbalance
   Blame the victims
   British Law
   Land Loss
   Social Alienation
   Tokenism
   Conclusions
   Footnotes
   Bibliography

Tom & Tim
   Introduction
   Poonindie
   Footnotes

Bibliography
   Primary Sources
   Secondary Sources

Kudnarto

Epilogue

Significance    At One   

Significance

Kudnarto is a difficult woman to write about. She only plays a cameo role within the pages of history. Only once does Kudnarto leave the wings and enter the stage of life to impress her own indelible mark in official records. Her own words, though brief, reflected the strength of her verbal patterns. On all other occasions she is interpreted by an exclusively white male audience. Thus the social issues that the European males considered important found its way into the letter books and newspapers. The issues she thought were important never reached the printed word. That Kudnarto had an effect on all who met her is beyond dispute. The newspapers and the Protector of Aborigines all spoke highly of her. This is made all the more relevant because of her youth. She had the skill and ability to capture both the hearts and attention of those whom she met. She strove to become a woman in her own right but faced strong opposition. The greatest opposition came from the man whom she loved. It is this opposition that may have caused her early death.

Kudnarto led the way for Kaurna women in particular and all indigenous peopel in general to face European culture on equal terms. She had the courage to enter white society on her terms and never lose her humanity as a consequence. Although she faced tragedy and poverty, she accepted her lot with humble humility. She uttered no official complaint. She lived in the hearts of her contemporaries as she lives on in ours.

Thus the significance of the Kudnarto story as it pertains to the healing process of South Australian reconciliation is self evident. It deals in a very personal way with our relationships as human beings faced with people from vastly differing cultures and attitudes.

The words from the poem "At One" expresses similar sentiments for each woman. Many people feel the words strongly in relation to Kudnarto.

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At One

The ochre plain opens wide
To accept the dust of life,
Tall trees wave their arms around
And leaves they fall like tears.

We caress the earth with hand and love
Your spirit now set free,
Soon time with gentle whispers goes
To sing your rivers through our dream.

In answer to the words we say
The ether fills with stone
And every day we learn your way
Until we come to you as one.

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Material

Section 346
Skillogolee Creek
The house that Thomas Adams built
Skillogolee Creek
The first letter of Thomas Adams from
Skillogolee Creek