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   Adams' Letters

   A Carpenter?
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   I have a dream
   The Licence

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   Who Gains
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   Reality sets in

   Port Henry
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   Watering Holes
   Skilly Creek


The Trial

Skilly Creek
   Money Problems

   Single Life
   Kudnarto's Death
   Loss of Land

Land Claim
   Unresolved Issues
   Terra Nullius
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   At One


   Adams' Letters


Police Court

Trial Report

The Civilising
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   Missionary activity

1860 Report
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   Gender Imbalance
   Blame the victims
   British Law
   Land Loss
   Social Alienation

Tom & Tim

   Primary Sources
   Secondary Sources


Appendix 2 ~ Correspondence

This section contains the all the known letters of Adams that still exist. They are presented in the original language and spelling. There has been no attempt to edit the letters to make them more readable. That Adams was barely literate is evident from both his handwriting, spelling and grammar. However, regardless of this, the letters are intelligable and thus they have been left as found to add authenticity to the voice beyond the grave. Responses to those letters have been included where it is felt that the reply adds additional sense to Adams’ original letters. All letters are in chronological order. Most of the replies have been discussed within the body of this work.

The Adams' Letters

6 February 1848    3 September 1848    22 July 1849    20 October 1849    31 March 1853    15 May 1855    16 December 1855    6th December 1858    9th January 1869   

The replies and other Letters

24 May 1848    26 May 1848    26 May 1855    26 May 1855    1 June 1855    6 June 1855    7 June 1855    7 June 1855    23rd July 1855    16th December 1858    20th February 1867    8th April 1875    8th April 1875    8th April 1875    9th March 1895    Minutes of Evidence, 1913   

LETTER 1- Letter dated 6 February 1848, GRG 24/6, A (1848) 196.

Seymers flat freberary The 6 1848

sir i went hup skilorgyre creek And Luked At That section of Land And i Thing it wold do verey well As There is plenty of good water And plenty of good Land for culteneshen By Mr hayden is got sheep There And he will Not A Low Me To go There with out A wreten A oder from you or goverement And if you can get it for Me i hope you will As soon As possebel you Need Not Thing That i shall drink Aney More for i have seen My foley in that And it is All over But supose i was To put hup A good house on it And Make A good garden it wold be All for govement when i die And my Not A Loue Me Bullakes To fence it in At wonce And culoutnet it But soispose i was To get sum cattel, pepel wold com Right hup To The section with sheep And if you doe Aney Thing i hope you wold Luke To that And plese To have The kindness To send Me the petkilers As soon As possebel for if dount get wot was promesed i Must leve The cunterey for i Thing pepel shuns Me And ples To drecket To penwortham velege Thos Adamas At Mr Jones

i Remen yours
Thos Adamas.


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LETTER 2 - Licence dated 24 May 1848, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

By His Excellency, Frederick Holt Robe Esquire, Lueitenant Colonel in the Army, Lieutentant Governor of Her Majesty's Province of South Australia, Vice Admiral of the same.

To Matthew Moorhouse Esquire, Protector of Aborigines of the said Province, and his successors in office, and also whom it may concern. Greeting, Whereas in order to encourage the adoption of settled habits and civilized usages, by the Aborigines, certain sections of Land have been reserved for their use; And Whereas an Aboriginal native woman named Kudnarto otherwise called 'Mary' hath been married in lawful wedlock to Thomas Adams of the Skilogalee Creek, labourer, and it is meet to encourage the settlement of herself and her lawful Offspring: Now Therefor Know, that I the Lieutenant Governor, in name on behalf of Her Majesty, by virtue of all powers me thereunder enabling, do hereby Grant full licence for the said Mary Adams for who during the term of her natural life to occupy, use and enjoy Section No. 346 consisting of eighty one acres more or less, being one of the said Aboriginal Reserves situated on the said Skylogalee Creek: and to clear, enclose and cultivate the said Section, and to build and erect any hut or erection thereon, and to cut, saw, split, and remove timber thereon, Provided always that these presents are granted on condition that the said Mary Adams shall and do settle and continue actually to reside upon the said land and shall not, by herself or any other, attempt to assign or underlet the same; Provided also that no possession or occupation under these presents shall give any title whatever to the said Land or alter the rights of Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors in respect thereto: And provided that in case of any offence or misconduct on the part of the said Mary or Thomas Adams, her husband, these presents may, at any time, on the report of the Protector of the Aborigines, be revoked and determined by the Governor.

Given under my hand and seal at Adelaide the Twenty Fourth day of May, One Thousand eight hundred and forty eight in the Eleventh year of her Majesty's Reign.


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LETTER 3 - Letter dated 26 May 1848, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

Colonial Secretary's Office

Adelaide, May 26 1848.


With reference to your letter of the 15 th February last, enclosing an application from Thos. Adams for permission to occupy an Aboriginal Reserve on the Skillygolee Creek, in virtue of his wife, an Aborigine of this Province, I have now the honor to transmit to you a licence under the hand & seal of the Lieut Governor, authorising the occupation of the same Section (No 346) by Mary Adams during her life time.

This license is to be filed in your office, and - saving the right of the Crown - will be renewable on the death of the woman in favor of her lawful offspring according to their existing circumstances, & on such terms and conditions as may then be found proper.

I have the honor to be,
Your obedient Servant
Colonial Secretary


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LETTER 4 - Letter dated 3 September 1848, GRG 24/6, A (1855) 1633.

Skylogolee creek 3 september 1848


I seake leberty of Agean Adressing you i receved your plan of The section And ham leving on it But i find it verry Expensiff To Me for The hiere of Bullaks And dray i was Thingen of sending To The New governer for sum Assistance if it wos onley The Lone of sum Bullaks And dray for A Time it wold Be A great help To me And if you would have the kindness To spake in Behalf of My wife i should Teake it as A great faver But however if i get No Assistance i Must leve The Section for i Must go where The work is you say in your Letter that i ham Not Aloud To Let Aney of it But it is Not My which to Let Aney of it if i can get on with out it But i have got A verey poor chance for it would choust Me seventy or Ehighty poinds To fence it in But i could do All the work My selief if i could get Bullaks And dray But if Aney Thing happened To My wife Acordng To your Letter gorvement could clame it Agen And propes Me get Nothing of it plese To drekit To Me kerconda Skyloglee creek.

i Reman yours obedent
Thos Adamus


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LETTER 5 - Letter dated 22 July 1849, GRG 26/6, A (1849) 1357˝.

Skillogolee Creek July 22/49

Your Excellency,

I beg to inform Your excellency that I have permission from Mr Moorhouse to settle on Section 346 in Skillogolee Creek during the natural life of my wife. I have now one child by her which I beg to know within this section in my case my wife should die will fall to the children as I have no authority to occupy this section but for the term of her natural life and I wish to know from Your Excellency whether I have any permission to make any improvements on the section in case of her death. I wish to be informed whether I can still retain the same.

I remain your most humble
Thos Adams


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LETTER 6 - Letter dated 20 October 1849, GRG 24/6, A (1849) 1960.

Skillogolee Creek October 20/49

Your Excellency,

I Thos Adams herby present to Your Excellency a petition, hoping your Excellency will be pleas'd to consider the precariousness of my situation, and to grant the terms of Recompense I here as in some measure will renumerate me for the loss I shall be liable to sustain form the annoyance of Carters of ore from the Burra Mine to the Gulf, and as Mr Williams, the Manager of the Smelting Company at the Burra has purchased a section of land close to mine and is erecting a Public House on it for the accomodation of Bullock Drivers and being no water upon it, has ordered the Drivers to water their cattle at my water hole, and they are becoming to me and my property a great inconvenience, and as I am informed by Mr Moorhouse that there is no reserved water on my section, I do not relish at all to see what little property I am possessed of undergo any damage from depredation that their cattle will no doubt be liable to perform, therefore I hope Your Excellency will ordain it so that if I can not derive benefit from my land in one way, I may in another, therefore if it is Your Excellency's wish that the water on any section must be as a regular watering place for bullocks, I hope that your Excellency will sanction my proposal of charging so much a head for all Bullocks that come there to water or granting me authority to put a toll gate on the road through my section on if my proposals cannot be adhered to I hope Your Excellency will inform me some means whereby I may derive some little advantage to stop finally all depredation on the land I am bound if possible to protect. I conclude hoping Your Excellency will persue the contents of my humble petition.

I remain your most humble
Thos Adams


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LETTER 7 - Letter dated 31 March 1853, GRG 35/4 (1853).

Skillogolee Creek March 31/53


I received your letter dated 26 th instant informing me to quit the Aboriginal Section No. 3055.

Without proper authoritiy I did not know any land that the government reserved for the benefit of the natives was Crown Land therefor. I thought that Mr Moorhouse had the management of it and when Mr Moorhouse was this way just last winter he gave me leave to go and live on it and though that I have bound myself down until next spring.

Sir I beg to say that I have nothing to do with any land only for the benefit of my wife which she can speak for herself and it was her wish to go and live there an time out of the way of the drays and bullocks on the Gulff Road.

I selected that spot for a man that married one of the natives five years befor it was survied but the nebehours drove him away and now they are trying to drive me away which they will of course as I am but a poor man and cannot stand against the public.

I remain your humble servant
Thomas Adams


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LETTER 8 - Letter dated 15 May 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

Skylloggee Creek May 15 1855


i went down To port Linclon with The children And came Back To porthayester As Mr hales had Nothing for Me To do i have seen The man That is on The section And he ows Me eight pounds of The Larst six Months Rent And i have Tould him To fowrd it To you And you And you can send it To Mr hales At port Linclon i shall go To port Linclon And see The children when i can Turn Myself i ham Now with capt Huges Near watervel Mr hales Tels Me That he will chresen And Babitise The children And send To Adelaide And i hope The section will be give To Them sir The Man is still on The section And i hope he will Not be interfeared with if he pays The Rent i want Noe from you if you would be so kind To Let Me No whean i could goe And live on The section if i could get A pardner To gin Me plese To have The kindness To send Me Ancer when you get The Monney drecket To Me At capten huges Near wortevel

i Reman yours Most humbel
Thos Adams


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LETTER 9 - Letter dated 26 May 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

Protector of Aborigines Office

26 th May 1855


The enclosed communication from Thos Adams, who some years ago married an Aboriginal Native woman, has been received by me. His wife Mary Adams died three months ago & the two children have been placed under care of the Venerable Archdeacon Hale. The Government placed a section of land in Trust (document enclosed) for Mrs Adams & it was understood that in case of death, it should be given to her children. From the enclosed letter No. 1 it will be seen that Adams has let the Section which he had no right to do & he now wishes to be informed if he, would be allowed to live upn it, in case he should meet with a partner. I cannot see that he has any claim whatever upon the Section; his children are taken off his hands, & supported at the expense of Government. & under the circumstances I should think the rent of the Section should be paid into the Treasury with the understanding that the land should be given over to the children, when they arrive at full age.

I have the honor to be
Your obedient Servt.
M. Moorhouse
Prot. of Aborigines


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LETTER 10 - File note dated 26 May 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

1633/CSO 1855

Protr of Aborigines

Letter fm T. Adams actn to Section of Land held by him by virtue of his marriage with an Aboriginal woman fowdg reps on

7/6/55 are written minutes of Col Secy.

Grant within vide 2553/53

The written Grant only conveys this section to Mary for the term of her natural life. - & the land therefore reverts to the Crown.

OK Richardson

Referred to Mr Moorhouse

Report within


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LETTER 11 - Letter dated 1 June 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

In reports + with his report and the Comr of Crown Lands. It is claimed that the licence only extends to the mother and not to the children. But if there has been a promise to extend a similar licence to the children under similar conditions it would be proper to carry it in to effect if the children claim it + there should appear to be no obstacle as to the husband he has no claim whatsoever.

BT Finniss
1 June 55


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LETTER 12 - Memo dated 6 June 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.


It appears to have been intended to grant a renewal of the licence in favor of the children on the death of the mother vide Col. Secretary's letter attached No. 735/48

I think the government should not recognise the letting of the section by the husband but that the property should be resumed and the section let in the ordinary way. The question of granting a renewal of the licence to the children will be a matter for after consideration when they come of age.

Should it appear that improvements have been made on the section to any considerable extent, it might be a question whether in equity, the value of these improvements should not be allowed considering the uncertain tenure on which the land was held - In law In think the tenant could claim a right to hold the land until all growing crops are taken off - compensation for improvements might be awarded in the same manner as under pasterage leases.

Chas Bonney
Commissioner of Crown Lands

6 th June 1855


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LETTER 13 - Letter dated 7 June 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

Inform Adams that the Section is now resumed by the Govt., it not being considered he has any claim to it and that it will be leased by the Government which is now undertaking of the maintenance of the children. When the children are of age a similar licence to occupy with that granted to the mother will be made out in their favor.

B.T. Finniss
7 June 55
Colonial Secretary's Office


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LETTER 14 - Letter dated 7 June 1855, GRG 24/4, A (1855) 1633.

Adelaide 7 th June 1855


With reference to your letter of 26 th Ultimo, respecting the application of Thomas Adams as to his right to let, or to resume possession of Section 346 of Skylogolee Creek, of which he had the occupation in virtue of his marriage with an Aboriginal Native Female, now deceased; I have the honor to instruct you to inform Adams that the Section is now resumed by the Government, it not being considered that he has any claim to it; and that the Government will lease it. The maintenance of the children in the Training Institiution is contributed to by the Govt., and when they are of age a licence to occupy the Section will be issued to them similar to that formerly made out in favor of their mother.

I have + c.
Sgd O.K. Richardson
The Protector of Aborigines


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LETTER 15 - Letter dated 23rd July 1855, GRG 24/4, A(1855) 1633


23rd July 1855

Charles Bonney
Commissioner of Crown Lands


I have the honor to report that I have delivered the letter enclosed in your letter to me of the 5th instant directed to Thomas Adams to him, at the extreme North Station of Captain Hughes near Spencer's Gulf, the enclosed slips of paper was given to my by a Native that Adams had sent after me, the day after I gave your letter to him. Sir, in your letter of the 9th Instant it is stated that the Commissioner wished to have a report as whether there are any crops growing on the land which Adams holds and whether the present occupier asks for any time to be given him before he removes, I beg to report that when I visited the said section there was about 5 acres of wheat apparently self sown growing on it and a small garden. Murphy enquired of me what time would be allowed him to remove.

I did not hold out to him any hope that he would be allowed to remain long in the occupation of the said section but told him that he would be required to quit at any time the Commissioner of Crown Lands thought proper. Murphy also expressed his willingness to pay the same amount of rent to the government as he hath being paying to Adams - viz twenty five pounds per annum.

I have the honor to be Sir
Your Obedient Servant
John Coles


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LETTER 16 - Letter to the Private Secretary dated 16 December 1855, GRG 3/38, RSO No. 219 (1855).

Hummocks Dec 16/55

To His Excellency
Sir Richard Greaves Macdonald


Having fell in with on the aboriginal natives of this colony in one thousand eight hundred and forty six and through her goodness I married her and protected her and it pleased providence to take her away from me on the eleventh of February last. She left two children behind her and I put them under Archdeacon Hale's care at Port Lincoln with his wish. But I do not feel myself happy without them and it is my wish to keep them on the land that was granted to their mother by Lieutant Governor Robe if Your Excellency will grant my request. And if the Government charge anything for them while under the Archdeacon I am will to pay it.

I remain
Your most humble
and obedient servant
Thos Adams

Please address
Thomas Adams
Care Mr Frederick
Post Office Clare.


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LETTER 17 dated 6th December 1858, GRG 52/1, 16/69

Thos. Adams
Green Patch Port Lincoln

6th December 1858

To His Excellency the Governor of SA


I take the liberty of addressing you respecting two boys of mine which, at the suggestion of Mr Moorhouse, I placed in the Training Institution at Poonindie then under the charge of Archdeacon Hale, in order that they might have an opportunity of obtaining a little learning but I now find that although they have been there upwards of three years, they might just as well have been in the bush all the time for the knowledge they have gained during that time.

During a stay in Port Lincoln district of about sixteen months I have been several times to see them, and on each occasion found them as regards cleanliness and clothing worse then the Native children roaming about the bush - Finding this the case, and that they have no protector but myself I have taken them away. I ought to state to your Excellency that these children are the offspring from my marriage with an Aboriginal Native in the year 1847, and who died in the year I854 - During this interval of seven years I was living upon a section of land granted to her by His Excellency Governor Robe - Since that period I am informed the Section has been in occupation of a tenant who pays no rent whatever for it. I mention this to Your Excellency to know if some benefit ought not to accrue to the children from it - For myself individually I neither ask nor wish for anything. A reply addressed to me as below will greatly oblige. Sir

Your obedient and humble Servant
Thos Adams


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LETTER 18 - Letter dated 16th December 1858, Mortlock Library ref. 1380 Somerville Collection Volume 2, pp.175-176.


December 16th 1858

Bishop Short
Archbishop of Adelaide


I have the honor to lay before you for the information of His Excellency the Governor a statement of some circumstances which have reference to the charges made by Thos. Adams respecting two children of his who have been during the last three years at the Natives Institution at Poonindie.

The facts are as follows: - During about the period he mentions he has occasionally visited the children, and has more than once expressed a wish to take the elder of the two with him. for the purpose of being, as he expressed himself, a companion to him in the bush, while he undertook a shepherd's situation - this on all occasions I have dissuaded him from doing until rather more than two months ago he came and expressed a wish that I would take him into my employ at Poonindie, as shepherd so that he might have the boy with him.

This, on various grounds I declined doing; and he then again said he should like to have the elder boy with him, for a time, as a companion; - again endeavouring to dissuade him from this, I told him that if he persisted in his wish, which however he had an undoubted right to do - as the father of the child - still that I on the other hand should not deem it incumbent on me to re-admit him -

The result was, that he took the elder boy; leaving the younger, whom he has throughout said he did not wish to have with him, at Poonindie, where as an illustration, or rather as an entire contradiction of the truthfulness of his statement, he still remains with us.

I should have mention that on no occasion has the father made any complaint to me regarding the appearance of the children.

Now the truth is that the elder boy has always manifested great carelessness and want of cleanliness in his habits - more so I do not hesitate to aver than the natives we have with us, and these habits have very frequently given us much trouble in the endeavour to overcome them; and the frequent destruction of clothes given to him rendered it necessary to confine him to such as were at once durable and inexpensive.

I remain


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LETTER 19 - Letter dated 20th February 1867, GRG 52/7/3 Protector of Aborigines Letter Book, Volume 3

Aborigines Office

20th February 1867

Mr T. Adams
Fountain Station
Green Patch
Port Lincoln


I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 7th Instant and have the honor to inform you that section 346 Killogalee Creek is leased to Mr W G Long, with the rent paid up until the 31st December 1867 consequently I cannot entertain your application but at the same time that will not prevent your son from making a fresh application for any unselected section.

I am Sir
Your obedient Servant
L.B. Scott
Acting Protector of Aborigines


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LETTER 20 dated 9th January 1869, GRG 52/1, 16/69

Port Lincoln

January 9th/69

The Honorable
The Commissioner of Crown Lands


I have married the first Aboriginal Native Woman of this Colony in 1848 and had a grant of a section of Land. By His Excellency Governor Robe with an understanding of renewal in favour of her children through that marriage having had two sons it is their wish for me to apply on their behalf has the oldest one Thomas Adams is married to an half-caste girl of Poonindie by the Reverend Doctor Hammond and they are desirous of gaining information whether they can Select a Section of Land at Port Lincoln in place of the one granted their deceased mother; by me going with them.

So you will be greatly obliging me with answer directed to me at Mr Williams Weaver's Happy Valley Port Lincoln

I remain yours respectfully
to Command
Thomas Adams

P.S. The reasons for enclosing the Declaration with this letter was through Arch Deacon's Hales not having registered the children in the Book of Poonindie when they are Christened.

Yours respectfully
Thomas Adams


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LETTER 21 - Letter dated 8th April 1875, GRG 52/1


April 8th 1875

E Hamilton Esq.
Protector of Aborigines


In the year 1867 my father applied for the liberty to occupy section No. 346 Skylogalee Creek near Clare on account of his having married a native woman. my mother - I received a letter from the Government to say that it would be surveyed for me, but I have lost the letter about four or five years ago. I have been living at Poonindie for about 20 years and I understand farming and can drive a reaping machine, plough and do all farm work - I believe the Government can give me a grant of land, as they have done to other Natives and if they will do so, I can work it and the Trustees of Poonindie will give me some farm tools and some seed wheat. Please sir, to give me an answer and see what can be done as a promise was made by letter to me to give me a Section.

I remain,
Your obedient Servant, Thomas Adams


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LETTER 22 - Letter dated 8th April 1875, GRG 52/1, Covering Note: Aborigines Office 157.7

I would respectfully submit the desirability of some provision being made under which a really deserving Aboriginal could secure a life interest in a certain portion of land renewable to his descendants subject of course to such conditions as might be deemed necessary to prevent the privilege being abused.



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LETTER 23 - Letter dated 8th April 1875, GRG 52/1, Covering Note: Aborigines Office 157.7

"I can find no legislative authority for making a gratuitous grant to an Aboriginal. An Aboriginal Reserve may be proclaimed and by Act No. 31 of 1872 reserves may be leased for 14 years and the rent may be nominal."


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LETTER 24 - Letter dated 9th March 1895, Hale's Personal Papers Archives Bristol University Reference Nos 130/208

Point Pearce

March 9th, 1895

My dear father,

I with the rest of our sons and daughters who are still alive received one of your printed letters that you sent to Mr Hawkes intended for us. It pained us very much to learn that the news concerning the fate of Poonindie had reached you for we know such could not have been but a blow to you in your letter you refer to us no doubt having heard that in the early days of Poonindie we often had sorrowful times when it pleased God to take from us some of our beloved one first and then another causing us much grief. As I am not one who have heard but one who saw and experienced those times we indeed had much sorrow and how at those times you used to talk to us about the bible and taught us to remember how God said we must through much trial and tribulation enter the kingdom of Heaven some of us now are here on Point Pearce Mission and some at Point McLeay Mission separated from one another and I feel as if we are strangers in a strange land and now dear father Poonindie is taken from us but not though leaving good results I am sure it would please you very much to see some of the young people who have grown up to themselves but to the place where they have been brought up and who are now living monuments of the good work that Poonindie has done and of Christ Jesus. 14 to 15 of your children are down at Point McLeay Mission under care of one Mr Sutton who is truly good and kind man.

Some of your children are here on the Point Pearce Mission but we can't help feeling that we are amongst strangers and the time is indeed hard with us but we know that here we have no continuing but we seek one to come add that the time will come when we will go to join those our friends whom you speak of in your letter ... Your children who are here on Point Pearce would like to hear from you once more before you leave us and we all hope to meet in that Heavenly Country where parting and sorrow will never more reach us. I must now close my letter to you with love and am very thankful that I am able to write this letter to you.

I am your dear son in Christ Jesus

Thomas Adams


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Minutes of evidence of Aborigines Royal Commission, SA Parliamentary Papers, 1913, Volume 2.

William Adams (Aboriginal) called and examined:

Question Number Chairman William Adams
2353 Have you any special work on the station? - No I am just an ordinary member of the community.
2354 How long have you been Iiving here? - About 25 years.
2355 What is it that you would like In connection with the land question? - I think that a portion of our community should be working on blocks of land on their own account instead of on wages.
2356 Why do you prefer farming? - Because I want to do better for myself.
2357 Are you one of the discontented people at this Mission? If so, will you please name the matter you are discontented with - (1) We are anxious that something should be done for the rising generation. (2) More attention should be given to the social welfare of the young people instead of devoting too much time to the commercial interests of the station. New conditions are being forced upon us, and we have to fall into line with more civilised ideas.

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Tom Adams (junior), called and examined:

Question Number Chairman Thomas Adams
2481 Do you work on the station here? - Yes: I am one of the general hands.
2482 Do you get constant employment here? - No.
2483 You have heard the evidence of the previous witness. is there anything additional you would like to put before the Commissioner? - I am not prepared to say much. We are all very anxious that some of the most suitable ones should be put on the land. Perhaps it would be better to give, say, half a dozen a start as a trial and we would judge of their efforts whether the scheme would be likely to prove successful.
2484 Is there anything else you would like to put before the Commissioner? - Yes. I would like to see some provision made for the younger generation.
2485 By the Hon J. Jelley - Would you be able to conduct your own business affairs If you had a block of land? - Yes; I think I could. I had a chance once, but the Government took the land away.


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Section 346
Skillogolee Creek
The house that Thomas Adams built
Skillogolee Creek
The first letter of Thomas Adams from
Skillogolee Creek